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Poverty Alleviation: Mozambique  

The civil war in Mozambique ended in 1992, and since that time social and economic conditions have improved dramatically. In 1992, Mozambique was considered the ‘world’s poorest country’ (IMF 2007). A civil war that lasted more than a decade, the drought of 1991-92, a failed socialist experience and colonisation all combined to create a state of extreme poverty.

Factors identified in Mozambique’s Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty 1999-2005 (PARPA I) that contributed to the dramatic postwar transformation were: peace and the associated economic recovery; the transition to a market economy; and, macroeconomic stability. Despite these achievements there is still a long way to go to reduce poverty in Mozambique. The goal of PARPA II (2006-2009) was to reduce poverty in Mozambique to 45 % in 2009 from 54 % in 2003. (The last poverty assessment was undertaken in 2003).

The PARPA II was developed in consideration of a number of primary documents. “Regional, African and international agreements, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), New Partnership for the Development of Africa (NEPAD) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), were respected. (IMF 2007)” PARPA II is flexible and is updated annually with the exception of its two overarching general objectives that remain the same:

  • Reduction in the levels of absolute poverty; and
  • Promotion of rapid, yet sustainable and comprehensive, economic growth.
Improving education is one of the Human Capital objectives.
Source: Hatfield 2009
( click to enlarge )

The PARPA II is broken down into 3 pillars, together these pillars have the following common elements: “building of the Mozambican nation, consolidating national unity, developing each citizen’s human potential, creating a functioning institutional system, and increasing the ability to create national wealth.” Growth in productivity is another common element to the three pillars.

The PARPA II Pillars and their Objectives

Governance:

  • Consolidation of national unity, peace, justice, and democracy;
  • Confrontation of corruption, excessive bureaucracy, and crime;
  • Strengthening sovereignty and international cooperation; and
  • The harmonious development of this country.

Human Capital:

  • Expand and improve the levels of education;
  • Improve and expand access to health care;
  • Improve and expand access to potable water and adequate sanitation;
  • Promote and consolidate self-esteem in the minds of the citizens;
  • Increase awareness of the importance of a culture that values work, enthusiasm, honesty and accountability; and
  • Help young Mozambicans to realise their potential and creative and entrepreneurial abilities, and express their voluntarist spirit.

Economic Development:

  • Rural development;
  • Foster the development of the national business community; and
  • Create an environment favorable to investment.

Source: IMF 2007

Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy

The Country Water Resource Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) is being implemented to assist the government of Mozambique with the prioritization of water resources interventions based on the country's changing socio-economic and environmental circumstances.  The identified priorities will be used to determine the World Bank's and other donors' engagement over the next 3-5 years (AFTWR and the World Bank 2007). 

The CSWRAS Objectives and Actions

i) Investigates and describes the role of water in the Mozambique economy and how the water related vulnerability affects the country's economic performance;

ii) Analyzes water-related challenges to the country's economic development;

iii) Identifies responses to mitigate the negative and enhance the positive impacts of water on growth and poverty reduction; and

iv) Develops recommendations on priority interventions for development partner's and the World Bank's assistance in water resources development for the period 2008-2011.

AFTWR and the World Bank 2007

CWRAS in Mozambique is consistent with the PARPA II development priorities and sector priorities outlined in the National Water Resource Management Strategy. CWRAS is also complementary to the World Bank Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) process. 

 



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